1. S + began/started + to V/ V-ing + time ago (nhận dạng cấu trúc: began/ started to V/ Ving: bắt đầu làm gì)
Viết lại thành: S + have/has + P2 / been Ving+ for / since … Ví dụ: She began to play the piano 5 years ago
=> She has played/ has been playing the piano for 5 years.
2. S + last + Ved + time+ ago: Lần cuối cùng làm gì
=> S + have/ has +not+ for + time
=> It’s + time+ since + S + last + Ved.
=> The last time + S + V ed+ was + time + ago. Ví dụ: It last snowed 2 weeks ago.
=> It hasn’t snowed for 2 weeks
=> It’s 2 weeks since it last snowed.
=> The last time it snowed was 2 weeks ago.
3. This is the first time + S +have/has+P2: Lần đầu làm gì
=> S +have/ has + never + P2+ before
=> S+ have/ has not+ P2+ before
Ví dụ: This is the first time I have met him
=> I have never met him before.
=> I haven’t met him before.
4. This is the Superlative (…est/ most ADJ N) S +have/has+P2
=> S +have/ has + never + P2+ such a/an+ ADJ+ N
=> S+ have/ has never+ P2+ a more + ADJ+ N than this
This is the most interesting novel I have ever read.
=> I have never read such an interesting novel.
=> I have never read a more interesting novel than this (one/ novel)
Cấu trúc 5,6,7,8 thay thế cho nhau linh hoạt.
5. S + Be/V + too + adj/adv + (for someone) + to do something: Quá....để cho ai làm gì...
- The top shelf is too high for the children to reach.
- He ran too fast for me to follow.
6. S + Be/V + so + adj/ adv + that + S + V+O: Quá... đến nỗi mà...
- The top shelf is so high that the children can not reach it.
- He ran so fast that I could not follow him.
Notes: Trong cấu trúc So… that: vế sau that là mệnh đề mới nên cần có thêm O sau V nên ta có reach it và follow him, trong khi đó ở cấu trúc “too” thì không, các em hết sức lưu ý.
Còn cấu trúc S + Be/V + so + many/much/little/few +N + that + S + V + O.
She has so much work to do that she can not go out with me tonight.
She has so many things to do that she can not go out with me tonight
7. It + Be/V + such + (a/an) + (adj) + N(s) + that + S + V +O: Quá... đến nỗi mà...
- It is such a high top shelf that the children can not reach it.
- He was such a fast runner that I could not follow him
8. S + Be/V + adj/ adv + enough + (for someone) + to do something : Đủ... cho ai đó làm gì...
Chúng ta thường lấy ADJ đối nghĩa của ADJ cho sẵn trong câu “too” để dùng tạo câu mới.
She is too young to get married.
=> She isn’t old enough to get married.
9. It’s adj (for Sb) to do sth: Ai đó làm gì như thế nào?
=> Doing sth be ADJ (for sb)
=> S find Ving/ it/ N + ADJ to do sth
It’s difficult for me to wake up early in the morning.
=> Waking up early in the morning is difficult for me.
=> I find waking up early in the morning difficult.
=> I find it difficult to wake up in the morning. (với N) I find English interesting to study.
It’s cool to try your best for what you want.
=> Trying your best for what you want is cool. I find it cool to try your best for what you want.
10. S+ should/ ought to/ had better+ V Or If I were you,…
=> It’s time for sb to do sth
=> It’s (high/ about) time S+ did sth. (thể hiện sự phàn nàn, chê trách “sao tới bây giờ mà vẫn chưa làm?”)
You’d better go right now.
=> It’s time for you to go now.
=> It’s time you went now.
11. Although/ Though/ Even though + clause (S+V)
=> Despite / In spite of+ Noun/gerund (Ving)
=> Despite/ in spite of the fact that S+ V,….
Ví dụ: Although they don’t have money, they still live happily.
=> Despite no money/ having no money, they still live happily.
=> In spite of the fact that they don’t have money, they still live happily.
12. S + V + so that/ in order that+ S + V (chỉ mục đích)
=> S + V + to + V
Ví dụ: She studies hard in order that she can pass the final examination.
=> She studies hard to pass the final examination
13. There’s no point in Ving: không đáng, không có ích khi làm gì?
=> It’s no good/ no use Ving
=> It’s not worth Ving
Ví dụ: There’s no point in arguing.
=> It’s no good/ no use arguing
=> It’s not worth arguing
14. Các cấu trúc liên quan đến câu gián tiếp
- Đề nghị: Suggest
Shall we+ V..../Let's+ V.../How/What about+ Ving..../Why dont we + V ..
=> S+ suggested+ Ving: đề nghị cùng làm gì.
Ví dụ: "Why don’t we go out for a walk?” said the boy.
=> The boy suggested going out for a walk
- Gợi ý cho người khác: “Why don’t you+ Vo?
=> S+ suggested+ that+ S+ should/shouldn't+ V Ví dụ: “Why don’t you have a rest?” he said to her
=> He suggested that she should have a rest.
- Cáo buộc : S accused Sb of doing sth
“You stole the money on the table”, she said to him
=> She accused him of stealing the money on the table.
- Thừa nhận hoặc phủ nhận
S+ admitted/ denied+ Ving/ having P2. He said “Yes, I did”
=> He admitted stealing/ having stolen the money on the table He said: “ No, I didn’t”
=> He denied stealing/ having stolen the money on the table
- Lời khuyên (should/ought to/ had better/ If I were you.../ Why don’t you)
S + advised sb + (not) to V
“If I were you, I would save some money ” she said
=> She advised me to save some money.
“You shouldn’t believe him” Jane said to Peter.
=> Jane advised Peter not to believe him.
- Câu mời (Would you like......?) S+ offered Sb Sth
S+ offered to do Sth S + invited sb+ to V
Would you like a cup of coffee, Peter?” I said.
=> I offered Peter a cup of coffee.
“Would you like me to clean the house for you?” he said.
=> He offered to clean the house for me.
“Would you like to go to the cinema with me tonight?” he said.
=> He invited me to go to the cinema with him that night.
- Dặn dò: S + remember + to do Sth
=> S + don’t forget + to do Sth
=> S remind Sb to do Sth
He told me: “Don’t forget to come here on time tomorrow”.
=> He reminded me to come there on time the next day.
She said to all of us: “Remember to submit the report by this Thursday”
=> She reminded all of us to submit the report by that Thursday.
- Cảm ơn: Thank Sb for Ving/ N
“Thank you for helping me finish this project “ he said to us.
=> He thanked us for helping him finish that project. “ Thank you for this lovely present.” I said to him.
=> I thanked him for that lovely present.
- Xin lỗi: S apologized to sb for Ving
“Sorry, I broke your vase” he said to his mother.
=> He apologized to his mother for breaking her vase
- Khen ngợi: S congratulated Sb on Ving “Congratulations! You won the first prize” he said to me.
=> He congratulated me on winning the first prize.
- Đe dọa: S+ threatened (sb)+to V/ not to V : đe doạ (ai) làm gì He said " I will kill you if you don’t do that "-
=> He threatened to kill me if I didn’t do that
15. Chú ý đến các dạng cấu trúc trong câu điều kiện
- Unless = If not.
If you don’t have a visa, you can not come to America
=> Unless you have a visa, you can not come to America
- Đảo ngữ trong điều kiện loại 1: Should+ S+ V
+ Loại 2: Were S+ Adj/N / to V
+ Loại 3: Had+ S+ (not) P2
You can ring this number whenever there is any difficulty.
=> Should there be any difficulty, ring this number.
16. Các cấu trúc liên quan đến so sánh:
Sự chuyển đổi từ cấu trúc ngang bằng - so sánh hơn - so sánh hơn nhất: Ví dụ: Sally is the tallest girl in her class
=> No one in Sally’s class is as tall as her.
=> No one in Sally’s class is taller than her.
- Cấu trúc tăng tiến cấp độ: The 8-year-old bride movie is more and more interesting.
- Cấu trúc càng… càng: The older he is, the less he wants to travel.
17. Các cấu trúc liên quan đến bị động
- Have Sb do sth => have Sth done
Ví dụ: We get him to look after our house when we are on business.
=> We get our house looked after (by him) when we are on business
- Make Sb do sth-> Sb be made to do Sth The teacher made the students work hard.
=> The students were made to work hard.
- People say S+ V
=> It be said that S+ V
=> S be said to V/ to have P2
Ví dụ: People say that he drinks a lot of wine.
=> It is said that he drinks a lot of wine.
=> He is said to drink a lot of wine.
18. Các cấu trúc liên quan đến câu đảo ngữ.
- Never will I speak to him again.
- No sooner had I arrived home than the phone rang.
- Hardly had I arrived home when the phone rang.
- Only after posting the letter did I realize that I had forgotten to put on a stamp.
- Not until I asked a passer-by did I know where I was = It was not until I asked a passer-by that I knew where I was.
- Around the corner is the hospital.