Chuyên đề Mệnh đề quan hệ - Relative Clauses được chia thành 2 phần lý thuyết và bài tập ứng dụng, mời các bạn cùng theo dõi!

A. LÝ THUYẾT

1. Định nghĩa mệnh đề quan hệ

Mệnh đề (Clause) là một phần của câu, nó có thể bao gồm nhiều từ hay có cấu trúc của cả một câu. Mệnh đề quan hệ dùng để giải thích rõ hơn về danh từ đứng trước nó.

Xét ví dụ sau:

The woman who is wearing the T-shirt is my girlfriend.

Trong câu này phần được viết chữ nghiêng được gọi là một relative clause, nó đứng sau “the woman” và dùng để xác định danh từ đó. Nếu bỏ mệnh đề này ra chúng ta vẫn có một câu hoàn chỉnh:

The woman is my girlfriend.

2. Các dạng mệnh đề Quan hệ

A. Relative Pronouns - Đại từ quan hệ

I. Các đại từ quan hệ

1. WHO: làm chủ từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người

..... N (person) + WHO + V + O

2. WHOM: làm túc từ cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người

.....N (person) + WHOM + S + V

3. WHICH: làm chủ từ hoặc túc từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ thay thế cho danh từ chỉ vật

....N (thing) + WHICH + V + O

....N (thing) + WHICH + S + V

4. THAT: có thể thay thế cho vị trí của who, whom, which trong mệnh đề quan hệ quan hệ xác định

* Các trường hợp thường dùng "that":

  • khi đi sau các hình thức so sánh nhất
  • khi đi sau các từ: only, the first, the last
  • khi danh từ đi trước bao gôm cả người và vật
  • khi đi sau các đại từ bất định, đại từ phủ định, đại từ chỉ số lượng: no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anything, anybody, someone, something, somebody, all, some, any, little, none.

Ex: He was the most interesting person that I have ever met.

    It was the first time that I heard of it.

    These books are all that my sister left me. 

    She talked about the people and places that she had visited.

* Các trường hợp không dùng that: trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định, sau giới từ

5. WHOSE: dùng để chỉ sở hữu cho danh từ chỉ người hoặc vật, thường thay cho các từ: her, his, their, hoặc hình thức 

.....N (person, thing) + WHOSE + N + V ....

II. Các trạng từ quan hệ

1. WHY: mở đầu cho mệnh đề quan hệ chỉ lý do, thường thay cho cụm for the reason, for that reason.

.....N (reason) + WHY + S + V ...

Ex: I don‟t know the reason. You didn't go to school for that reason.

→ I don‟t know the reason why you didn't go to school.

2. WHERE: thay thế từ chỉ nơi chốn, thường thay cho there

....N (place) + WHERE + S + V ....

(WHERE = ON / IN / AT + WHICH)

Ex: a/ The hotel wasn't very clean. We stayed t that hotel.

→ The hotel where we stayed wasn't very clean.
→ The hotel at which we stayed wasn't very clean.

3. WHEN: thay thế từ chỉ thời gian, thường thay cho từ then

....N (time) + WHEN + S + V ...

(WHEN = ON / IN / AT + WHICH)

Ex: Do you still remember the day? We first met on that day.

→ Do you still remember the day when we first met?
→ Do you still remember the day on which we first met?

I don‟t know the time. She will come back then. → I don‟t know the time when she will come back.

III. Các loại Mệnh đề quan hệ

Có hai loại mệnh đề quan hệ: mệnh đề quan hệ xác định và mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định.

1. Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định (Defining relative clauses): là mệnh đề được dùng để xác định danh từ đứng trước nó. Mệnh đề xác định là mệnh đề cần thiết cho ý nghĩa của câu, không có nó câu sẽ không đủ nghĩa. Nó được sử dụng khi danh từ là danh từ không xác định và không dùng dấu phẩy ngăn cách nó với mệnh đề chính.

2. Mệnh đề quan hệ không hạn định (Non-defining relative clauses): là mệnh đề cung cấp thêm thông tin về một người, một vật hoặc một sự việc đã được xác định. Mệnh đề không xác định là mệnh đề không nhất thiết phải có trong câu, không có nó câu vẫn đủ nghĩa. Nó được sử dụng khi danh từ là danh từ xác định và được ngăn cách với mệnh đề chính bằng một hoặc hai dấu phẩy (,) hay dấu gạch ngang (-)

Ex: Dalat, which I visited last summer, is very beautiful. (Non-defining relative clause)

Note: để biết khi nào dùng mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định, ta lưu ý các điểm sau:

  • Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa là một danh từ riêng
  • Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa là một tính từ sở hữu (my, his, her, their)
  • Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa la một danh từ đi với this , that, these, those

IV. Một số lưu ý trong mệnh đề quan hệ

1. Nếu trong mệnh đề quan hệ có giới từ thì giới từ có thể đặt trước hoặc sau mệnh đề quan hệ (chỉ áp dụng với whom và which.)

Ex: Mr. Brown is a nice teacher. We studied with him last year.
→ Mr. Brown, with whom we studied last year, is a nice teacher.
→ Mr. Brown, whom we studied with last year, is a nice teacher.

2. Có thể dùng which thay cho cả mệnh đề đứng trước.

Ex: She can't come to my birthday party. That makes me sad. → She can't come to my birthday party, which makes me sad.

3. Ở vị trí túc từ, whom có thể được thay bằng who.

Ex: I‟d like to talk to the man whom / who I met at your birthday party.

4. Trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định , chúng ta có thể bỏ các đại từ quan hệ làm túc từ: whom, which

Ex: The girl you met yesterday is my close friend. The book you lent me was very interesting.

5. Các cụm từ chỉ số lượng some of, both of, all of, neither of, many of, none of ... có thể được dùng trước whom, which và whose.

Ex: I have two sisters, both of whom are students. She tried on three dresses, none of which fitted her.

B. LUYỆN TẬP

I. Fill in the blanks with WHO, WHICH or THAT:

1. The men _______ lives next-door are English.

2. The dictionary _______ you gave me is very good.

3. Do you know the girls _______ are standing outside the church?

4. The police are looking for the thieve _______ got into my house last night.

5. The chocolate _______ you like comes from the United States.

6. I have lost the necklace _______ my mother gave me on my birthday.

7. A burglar is someone _______ breaks into a house and steals things.

8. Buses _______ go to the airport run every half hour.

9. I can't find the key _______ opens this door.

10. I gave you a book _______ had many pictures.

11. I don't like the boy _______ Sue is going out with.

12. Did you see the beautiful dress _______ she wore yesterday?

13. The man _______ she is going to marry is very rich.

14. This is the bank _______ was robbed yesterday.

15. He wore a mask _______ made him look like Mickey Mouse.

II. Fill in the blanks with WHO, WHICH or WHOSE:

1. He arrived with a friend ______ waited outside in the car.

2. The man ______ mobile was ringing did not know what to do.

3. The car ______ the robbers escaped in was a BMW.

4. The woman ______ daughter was crying tried to calm her down.

5. The postman ______ works in the village is very old.

6. The family ______ car was stolen last week is the Smiths.

7. The cowboy ______ is wearing a red shirt looks very funny.

8. A bus is a big car ______ carries lots of people.

9. The volunteers, ______ enthusiasm was obvious, finished the work quickly.

10. Children ______ like music are often good at mathematics.

11. The engineers ______ designed the building received an award.

12. The girl ______ recited the poem is my niece.

13. The townspeople, ______ pride in their community is well- known, raised enough money to build a new town hall.

14. The Pacific Ocean, ______ might have been crossed by raft during the Stone Age, is the world's largest ocean.

15. The newspaper to ______ we subscribe is delivered regularly.

III. Combine These Pairs Of Sentences Using Relative Pronouns:

1. The first boy has just moved. He knows the truth.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

2. I don't remember the man. You said you met him at the canteen last week.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

3. The only thing is how to go home. It makes me worried.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

4. The most beautiful girl lives in the city. I like her long hair very much.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

5. He was Tom. I met him at the bar yesterday.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

6. The children often go swimming on Sundays. They have much free time then.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

7. They are looking for the man and his dog. They have lost the way in the forest.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

8. The tree has lovely flowers. The tree stands near the gate of my house.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

9. My wife wants you to come to dinner. You were speaking to my wife

.................................................. .................................................. ......

10. The last man has just returned from the farm. I want to talk to him at once.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

11. The students will be awarded the present. The students' reports are very valuable.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

12. The book was a lovely story. I was reading it yesterday.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

13. The botanist will never forget the day. He found a strange plant on that day.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

14. Someone is phoning you. He looked for you three hours ago.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

15. The man works for my father's company. The man's daughter is fond of dancing.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

IV. Viết lại câu sử dụng mệnh đề quan hệ thích hợp.

1. He worked for a woman. She used to be an artist.

2. They called a doctor. He lived nearby.

3. I wrote an email to my sister. She lives in Italy.

4. Linh liked the waiter. He was very friendly.

5. We broke a car. It belonged to my uncle.

6. Ba dropped a cup. It was new.

7. Nam loves books. They have happy endings.

8. I live in a city. It is in the north of Vietnam.

9. The man is in the class. He is wearing a blue hat.

10. The woman works in a hospital. She is from India.

11. My sister has four sons. She lives in Japan.

12. The man was rude. He was wearing a red shirt.

13. The phone is on the table. It belongs to An.

14. The TV got broken. It was my grandfather’s.

15. The radio was stolen. It was bought 35 years ago.

16. The girl gave Binh his phone. She is his daughter.

17. This is the laptop. My mother has just bought it.

18. That’s the man. His car is a Ferrari.

19. I know the woman. She lives upstairs.

20. It’s the dog. I always talk to him at night.

21. She opened the cupboard. She kept her best glasses in there.

22. This is the house. General Giap lived here.

23. The flight was canceled. We were going to take it.

24. I saw the lady in the shop. She was Vicki Zhao.

25. The man is a director. His dog is sick.

26. My violin is missing. It was my birthday present.

27. I first learn English from a book. I’ve just reread it.

28. The police officer has just arrested a man. He robbed the bank.

29. These are the shoes. I bought them in HCMC.

V. Hãy nối hai câu bằng dạng rút gọn của mệnh đề quan hệ.

1. She bought the car. Her father had recommended it.

2. He lost the pen. I had given it to him.

3. We called the delivery company. Nga often uses it.

4. Lam met a girl. I used to employ her.

5. Chi called the lawyer. My mother knows him.

6. He brought a woman. I worked with her last year.

7. We employed the pianist. Hai introduced her.

8. The cake is on the table. I bought it.

9. The book belongs to Lan. A found it under the chair.

10. The food was delicious. Huy cooked the food.

11. The bike was stolen. My parents gave me a bike.

12. The man was arrested. I reported him to the police.

13. The teacher was right. Ngan asked him about her problem.

14. The writer was very pretty. My brother dated her.

15. The secretary is in the office. Dzung likes her.

16. We ate food. I bought the food.